Languages/Details

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Language ISO Description Status
'Ala'ala nrz 'Ala'ala (referred to in the literature as Lala, Nara, or Pokau) is a Central Papuan language of the Papuan Tip cluster spoken by about 4000 people living on and near the coast about 100 to 150km northwest of Port Moresby in Papua New Guinea.
Abaza abq Abaza is a language spoken in Karachay-Cherkess Republic. In 2002 there were 38.200 speakers in Russian Federation. Alternative names are Abazin, Abazintsy and Ashuwa.
Abkhaz abk Abkhaz is a North Caucasian language spoken by around 117.000 speakers, mainly in Georgia. red
Ainu ain Ainu (or Ainu Itak) is a moribund isolated language spoken by less than 100 people of the Ainu ethnic group on the northern Japanese island of Hokkaidō. orange
Akawaio ake Akawaio is spoken in Guyana, Brazil and Venezuela by about 4,500 people. It belongs to the Cariban family.
Akusha Dargi dar The Dargi language is spoken by some 366,000 people, the majority of whom live in the Daghestan republic (Russia). The Akusha dialect differs minimally from Standard Dargi. orange
Aleut ale Aleut is an Eskimo-Aleut language spoken by around 490 speakers, mainly in the United States. red
Apurina apu Apurina is spoken in Brazil. Alternative names are Apurinã, Ipurinãn,Ipurinã, Kangite and Popengare.
Arapaho arp Arapaho (or Arapahoe) is a Plains Algonquian language spoken almost entirely by elders in Wyoming, and to a much lesser extent in Oklahoma. orange
Arizona Tewa tew1 Arizona Tewa, or Tewa (Arizona), is spoken in New Mexico, North of Santa Fe and Arizona at Hano on Hopi Reservation. In 2000 there were 1300 speakers left.
Assiniboine asb Assiniboine is a Dakotan language of Canada, also spoken in the United States to a lesser extent. The language name is Ojibwe and means "Stone Siouans".
Athpare aph Athpare is a language of the southeastern Kiranti area with approximately 2.000 speakers (1995). green
Azerbaidjanian aze Azerbaidjanian is a Turkic language spoken in Azerbaijan and Iran by approximately 30 million people.
Bahing bhj Bahing is a Kiranti language spoken in Okhaldhunga district of eastern Nepal, first studied by Hodgson (1857, 1858) and more than a century afterwards by Michailovsky (1975). It is spoken by 2,765 people (2001 census). green
Bantawa bap Bantawa is a language of the Southern subgroup of the Central Kiranti branch. The most closely related languages are Chintang, Dungmali, Chamling and Puma. Bantawa is native to Bhiojpur District in eastern Nepal. green
Baure brg Baure is an Arawakan language of Bilivia. It is nearly extinct. Most speakers shift to Spanish
Belhare byw A language of the southeastern Kiranti area with approximately 2.000 speakers. Its closest relatives are Athpare Chilling. green
Bella Coola blc Bella Coola (also Nuxálk) is a Salishan language spoken in the vicinity of the Canadian town Bella Coola, British Columbia by approximately 20-30 elders. orange
Blackfoot bla Blackfoot is a Plains Algonquian language spoken by around 2000 people in Alberta (Canada) and NW Montana (USA). yellow
Buma tkw
Bunuba bck Bunuba is an Australian language spoken only by older adults in western Australia. Alternative names are Punapa and Punuba.
Camling rab Camling is a Southern Central Kiranti language spoken in the Khotang and Udaypur districts of eastern Nepal. There are two grammars which contradict each other slightly, probably because they look on two (three) different dialects. The grammar sketch from Ebert 1997 is based on fieldwork done in the Khotang district (red in the map), whereas the data from Rai come from the Udaypur district (green in the map). green
Carib car Carib is spoken in Venezuela, Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana and Suriname. It belongs to the Cariban family.
Cheyenne chy Cheyenne is a Plains Algonquian language spoken predominantly in present-day Montana and Oklahoma in the United States. yellow
Chimariko cid Chimariko is an extinct Northwestern California language. red
Chinook (Upper) wac Upper Chinook is spoken in North central Oregon, south central Washington. In 1990 there were 69 Speakers left. An alternative name is Wasco-Wishram.
Chintang ctn Chintang is a Southeastern Kiranti language spoken by about 5.000 speakers in Chintang and Ahale of the Dhankhuta district in the eastern hills of Nepal. It is documented by the "Chintang and Puma Documentation Project". green
Chipewyan chp Chipewyan, also called Dene, is an Athapaskan language spoken in the Arctic regions around Hudson Bay, Canada. Their ancestors are the Taltheilei.
Chitimacha ctm Chitimacha is spoken in Southern Louisiana, USA.
Choctaw cho Choctaw is a language spoken by circa 17000 people in the US. It is part of the Muskogean family
Chontal (Highland) chd Chontal (Highland) is spoken in Mexico: southern most part of Oaxaca, west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, in San José Chiltepec and San Lucas Ixcatepec, plus 15 towns. In 1990 there were 3,600 speakers left. Alternative names are Chontal de la Sierra de Oaxaca and Tequistlatec.
Chuckchi ckt The Chuckchi language red
Chuj cac Chuj is a Mayan language of Guatemala.
Chumash (Barbareño) boi Chumash Barbareño is a Chumash language spoken in the United States.
Cocopa coc In 1998 200 people spoke Cocopa in Mexico. Alternative names are Cocopá, Cocopah, Cucapá, Cucupá, Kikimá and Kwikapá.
Coos csz Coos, also called Hanis, is a language of the Oregon Coast family. According to the Ethnologue, 16th edition, there is only one mother tongue speaker left.
Cree cre Cree is a Central Algonquian language spoken by over 100 thousand people in Canada, spread across mainly five dialects. The following data are taken from "Plains Cree morphosyntax" - Dahlstrom(1991), which describes the dialect of Plains Cree, spoken primarily in Saskatchewan and Alberta. yellow
Crow cro Crow is a Siouan language of the Missouri Valley. It is also called Apsaalooke.
Darai dry Darai (or Darai Kura) is an endangered Indo-Aryan language of western Nepal. orange
Dekwana mbh De'kwana (or Maquiritari) is spoken in Venezuela and Brazil by about 5,500 people. It belongs to the Cariban family.
Delaware del The Delaware languages, also known as the Lenape languages, are Munsee and Unami, two closely related languages of the Eastern Algonquian subgroup of the Algonquian language family. red
Diegueño dih2 In 1991 Diegueño was spoken by 220 people in Mexico. Alternative names are Kumiai, Campo, Cochimí, Comeya, Cuchimí, Kamia, Kamiai, Kamiyahi, Kamiyai, Ki-Miai, Ko’al, Ku’ahl, Kumeyaai, Kumeyaay, Kumia, Kw’aal, Quemayá, Tipái and Tipéi.
Dumi dus Dumi is a Western Kiranti language that was spoken in the Khotang district of eastern Nepal until recently. The language is now extinct. green
Forest Enets enf Forest Enets and Tundra Enets, which may be considered separate languages, are the two main dialects of the nearly extinct Enets language (often called 'Yenisei Samoyed'). It is spoken along the Yenisei River in Russia. With about 70 speakers left, the number of the Enets people is ever decreasing.
Fox sac Fox or Meskwaki is a Central Algonquian language. orange
German deu German is a West Germanic language spoken by about 90 million native spearkers. It is an official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg and Belgium.
Greenlandic kal Western Greenlandic is an Eskimo-Aleut (-Eskimo-Aleut) language spoken by about in 44,000 people in Greenlandic and in Denmark.
Guaraní gug Guaraní is a Tupi-Guaraní language of Paraguay. It is part of the macrolanguage Guarani, which includes further varieties spoken in Bolivia and Brazil.
Gurrgoni gge Gurrgoni (Guragone) is a nearly extinct language spoken in Arnhem land. orange
Hayu vay Hayu (Wayu, Vayu, Wayo) is a Northwestern Kiranti language spoken in the Janakpur District of Nepal. green
Hixkaryana hix Hixkaryana is a cariban language spoken in Brazil. In 1959 the population was about 100, but people tried to save the language and the number increased. Alternative names are Chawiyana, Faruaru, Hichkaryana, Hishkaryana, Hixkariana, Kumiyana, Parucutu, Parukoto-Charuma, Sherewyana, Sokaka, Wabui, Xereu and Xerewyana.
Hualapai yuf1 Hualapai, also called Walapai, is a Hokan language of central and Northwest Arizona.
Huehuetla Tepehuan tee Huehuetla Tepehuan is spoken by 3000 speakers in Western Central Mexico. Data are from Troiani (2001).
Hungarian hun Hungarian is a language of the Uralic family, spoken mainly in Hungary, but the speaker community is scattered around the world. The world-wide number of speakers is 12,501,270, according to the 16th edition of the Ethnologue.
Hupa hup Hupa is an Athapaskan language spoken in Northwest California. There are only 8 speakers left.
Iaai iai
Ikpeng txi Ikpeng is spoken in Brazil by about 320 people. It belongs to the Cariban family.
Ineseño Chumash inz Ineseño is an extinct Central Chumash language. It was spoken in Southern California.
Jabêm jae
Jacaltec jac Jacaltec is a Mayan language spoken in the Highlands of Guatemala by approximately 15,000 people who live in the muni- cipio of Jacaltenango, Department of Huehuetenango. orange
Jamul dih1 Jamul, also called Kumiai, Tiipay or Jamul Tiipay, is a Hokan language of Mexico.
Japhug jya Japhug (in Chinese Chabao) is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by about 3,000 people in Mbarkhams County, Rngaba Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China. It belongs to the Rgyalrong group. Main research was done by Guillaume Jacques. red
Jaqaru jqr Jaqaru is spoken in Peru. Together with Aymara it forms the Aymaran family
Jemez tow Jemez is spoken in North central New Mexico, in 1990 by 1300 Speakers. Alternative names are Jemez Towa or Towa.
Jero jee Jero is spoken by more than 2,000 people living in Okhaldhunga and Sindhuli districts of eastern Nepal. The Jero language is known from the literature by the names ‘Jerung’, ‘Jero’, ‘Jerum’, ‘Zero’, ‘Zerum’ or ‘Jerunge’. It is closely related to Wambule. Both languages are mutually intelligible and may perhaps be treated as dialects rather than as distinct languages. green
Jumjum jum Jumjum is a Western Nilotic language spoken in the Sudan (25 000 speakers).
Kadiwéu kbc Kadiwéu is a Mataco-Guaicuru language spoken by about 1,600 people near the town of Serra da Bodoquena in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. orange
Kalkatungu ktg Kalkatungu is an extinct Pama-Nyungan language which was spoken in Queensland, Australia.
Kamas xas Kamas (or Kamassian) is an extinct Southern Samoyedic language. It resembles Selkup in that there is a distinction between the subjective (with intransitives and transitives) and objective (with transitives) conjugation such that in the latter the markers seem to express the pure presence of a definite direct object, but none of the object's phi-features.
Kannada kan Kannada, also known as Banglori or Madrassi, is an Indian language that has around 35 million speakers. It belongs to the Southern Dravidian languages.
Karuk kyh Karuk (or Karok) is a nearly extinct Amerindian language of Northwestern California. It's part of the (controversial/hypothetical) Hokan language family and forms a sprachbund with other languages of the area (Yurok, Hupa, Chimariko). green
Kenswei Nsei ndb Kenswei Nsei is a language spoken in Cameroon by approx. 12,500 people
Ket ket Ket is a Yeniseian language spoken along the middle Yenisei basin. orange
Khanty kca Like Mansi, Khanty (Ostyak) is an Ob-Ugric language. It is spoken by 13,600 people in western Siberia (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug and along the river Ob). There are various dialects. The data collected here are from the Sherkal dialect (Collinder 1957). For discussion of the Tremjugan dialect see Abondolo (1988). All Khanty dialects distinguish between definite and indefinite conjugation (present and past forms). A transitive verb always agrees with its subject in person and number, but if the object is definite, number of the object (sg, du, pl) is cross-referenced as well.
Kiliwa klb In 1994 about 28 people spoke Kiliwa. Alternative names are Kiliwi and Quiligua.
Kiowa kio In 2000 Kiowa was spoken by about 1,100 speakers in west central Oklahoma.
Koasati cku In 2000 there were about 200 Koasati speakers left. Koasati is mainly spoken in the Koasati Reservations Near Elton, Louisiana, and near Livingston, Texas. One Koasati speaking family lives in Oregon. An alternative name is Coushatta.
Kohi kkt Koyi Rai is a language of the Kiranti group of the Himalayan branch of Tibeto-Burman. Koyi, also referred to by speakers as Koyu or Kohi, is spoken in the Khotang district in Eastern Nepal, near the headwaters of the Rawa Khola, in the villages of Sungdel and, to a lesser extent, Dipsung. There are said to be 2~3000 speakers. orange
Kosare kiq Kosare (alternate name: Kosadle) is a Kaure language spoken in Indonesia by approx. 250 people.
Kulung kle Kulung is a Central Kiranti language spoken by about 15.000 people in the Solu Khumbu District of the Sagarmatha Zone in eastern Nepal. green
Kunama kun Kunama is spoken by about 188,880 speakers, mainly in Eritrea.
Kutenai kut Kutenai is spoken in Canada and the United States. Alternative names are Kootenai, Kootenay and Ktunaxa. In 2002 there were 6 speakers left in Canada and about 6 in the United States red
Lakhota lkt Lakhota, also Lakota, is a Siouan language of the Mississippi valley. Together with Assiniboine, Dakota and Stoney, it forms the Dakota branch.
Lenakel tnl Lenakel is an Oceanic language spoken in Vanuatu with ca. 11000 speakers
Limbu lif Limbu is a Kiranti language spoken in Nepal, Sikkim, Kashmir and Darjeeling district, West Bengal, India, by the Limbu community. The name Limbu is an exonym of uncertain origin. Limbus refer to themselves as Yakthungba, and their language as Yakthung Pan. green
Lohorung lrr Lohorung green
Maasai mas Maasai is an Eastern Nilotic language spoken in Southern Kenya and Northern Tanzania
Mabaan mfz Mabaan is a Western Nilotic language spoken in the Sudan. Verbs in Mabaan inflect for person and number of subject and object, for tense/aspect, and for mood (direct vs. indirect reported speech).
Maithili mai Maithili is a language spoken in India by about 31,900,000 speakers. Data are from Yadav (1996).
Maka mca Maka
Makushi mbc Macushi is spoken in Brazil, Guyana and Venezuela by about 19,000 people. It belongs to the Cariban family.
Manambu mle Manambu is a language of the Sepik family that is spoken by approximately 2000 people in Papua New Guinea
Mansi mns Mansi (alternate name: Vogul) is an Uralic language spoken by approx. 2,700 people in Siberia, between Urals and Ob River. With Khanty it froms the Obugric branch of the Uralic languages; Obugric and Hungarian form the Ugric branch. Verbs in Mansi distinguish 3 moods (indicative, conditional, imperative). In the indicative mood there are two tenses: present and preterite. Intransitive and transitive verbs agree with their subject in person and number. Definite and indefintie conjugation are distinguished: if there is a definite object, the verb agrees with it in number (sg, pl, du), too.
Mapudungun arn Mapudungun (mapu 'earth/land', dungun 'speak/speech', also known as Mapuche) is an Araucanian language. It is spoken by around 200,000 people in central Chile and parts of Argentina.
Maricopa mrc Maricopa is a nearly extinct Amerindian language of Arizona. It's part of the (controversial/hypothetical) Hokan language family. Together with Mojave and Yuma it constitutes the River branch of the Yuman family.
Mator mtm Mator is an extinct Southern Samoyedic language. There are no potential person portmanteaus because the distinction between conjugation types (subjective vs. objective) which is present in the other Uralic languages has collapsed. Remnants of this pattern can be found in tense marking: There are two different present tense markers for transitive verbs, ŋ and j, which precede the subject agreement suffix and whose distribution resembles the distribution of the former subjetive vs. objective conjugation. But perhaps the use of the different tense markers with transitive verbs is guided by purely phonological reasons. For discussion see Helimski (1997:152f) and Körtvély (2005:30f).
Maung mph Maung is an Australian language spoken by around 240 speakers. orange
Menominee mez Menominee (also Menomini) is a nearly-extinct Algonquian language spoken in Wisconsin. Menominee is an exonym from Ojibwe manoominii, meaning "wild rice people"; the Menominee call themselves Mamaceqtaw, "the people". yellow
Mewahang emg Mewahang is an Eastern Kiranti language. orange
Miami-Illinois mia Miami-Illinois (also Peoria) is an extinct Central Algonquian language of the southeastern United States. The language and its grammar have been described by David Costa (1994, 2003) based on existing documentation. yellow
Micmac mic The Micmac or Mi'kmaq language is an Eastern Algonquian language spoken by nearly 11,000 Míkmaq in Canada and the United States orange
Miwok (Southern Sierra) skd Southern Sierra Miwok is a Penutian language. There were 7 speakers left in 1994. Alternative names are Me-Wuk, Meewoc, Mewoc, Miwoc, Miwokan, Mokélumne, Moquelumnan, San Raphael, Talatui, Talutui and Yosemite.
Moghol mhj Moghol is a Mongolic language which is spoken by ca. 200 people in Eastern Afghanistan
Mohawk moh Mohawk is an Iroquoian language spoken in Canada (Southwest Quebec, South Ontario) but also in the United States. It is closely related to Oneida and is mostly spoken by older adults.
Mojave mov Mojave is spoken in California-Arizona border, Fort Mohave and Colorado River reservations. An alternative name is Mohave.
Mordvin myv Erza Mordvin is an Uralic language spoken in the Mordovian Republic (Russia) by about 700,000 people. Transitive verbs in Erza Mordvin inflect for person and number of subject and object. There is a distinction between an indefinite (intransitive verbs and transitive verbs with indefinite objects) and a definite (transitive verbs with definite objects) conjugation. There are two dialects: Erza and Moksha. The decriptions here are based on Erza Mordvin. The dialects differ mainly in the phoneme inventory and the application of phonological rules. A comparison between Erza and Moksha with the corresponding paradigms for Moksha can be found in Raun (1988).
Nandi niq Nandi
Navaho nav Navaho is a Na-Dene language spoken in Northeast Arizona, northwest Mexico, southeast Utah and to a lesser extent in Colorado. The speakers prefer the name Diné
Ndjebbana djj Ndjébbana is an Australian language with few partial speakers left. An alternative name is Gunavidji.
Necaxa Totanac tku Upper Necaxa Totanac is a language spoken by 3400 speakers in Mexico. Data are from Beck (2003).
Nenets yrk Nenets (alternate name: Yurak) is a Samoyedic language spoken by approx. 27,000 people in northern Russia/ west Siberia. It divides into two major dialects, Tundra Nenets(25,000 speakers) and Forest Nenets(2,000). The information on this site applies to Tundra Nenets.
Nez Perce nez Nez Perce is a Penutian language of North Idaho. There are about 200 speakers and the number is decreasing.
Nganasan nio This is the Nganasan language (alternate name: Tavgi), spoken by approx. 800 people throughout the central and southwestern area of the Taymyr Peninsula in Russia. The newly established Cyrillic-based writing system is barely used; there is not much of a literary language.
Ngarinyin ung Ngarinyin is a language of Australia, spoken by about 80 speakers. Data are from Rumsey (1978).
Nipmuck xlo Gustafson (2000) identifies Loup A, an extinct Eastern Algonquian language, as Nipmuck, the lost language of the Nipmuck tribe of Massachusetts. red
Nocte njb Nocte is a language of India, spoken in 2001 by around 35,000 speakers. green
Ojibwe oji Ojibwe (also known as Ojibwa, Ojibway, Chippewa) is a widespread Central Algonquian language spoken (mainly) in southern Canada and in the north of the United States. The following data are taken from the "Nishnaabemwin Reference grammar" (Valentine(2001)), which describes one of the many dialects of the Ojibwa language. green
Onondaga ono The Onondaga language with data taken from Barrie (2005). orange
Panara kre Panará is spoken in Brazil by about 250 people.
Passamaquoddy pqm Maliseet-Passamaquoddy is a East Algonquian language spoken by around 1500. The language consists of two major dialects: Malecite mainly spoken in New Brunswick, Canada and Passamaquoddy in Maine, United States. yellow
Pawnee paw Pawnee is a Caddoan language spoken in Oklahoma, US. In 1997 there were twenty speakers.
Pipil ppl Pipil is an Uto-Aztecan language. Alternative names are Nahuat and Nawat. In 1987 there were 20 speakers left.
Potawatomi pot Potawatomi is a Central Algonquian language and is spoken around the Great Lakes in Michigan and Wisconsin, as well as in Kansas in the United States, and in southern Ontario in Canada, by fewer than 50 Potawatomi people, all elderly. yellow
Proto Algonquian pra This page summarizes information about Proto Algonquian. orange
Proto Kiranti prk This page summarizes information about Proto Kiranti. orange
Proto Oceanic pro This page summarizes information about Proto Oceanic.
Puma pum Puma is a Central Southern Kiranti language spoken in the districts of Khotang and Udaypur in eastern Nepal by the Puma Rai people. The language is documented by the "Chintang and Puma Documentation Project" (CPDP). green
Quechua (Ayacucho) quy Ayacucho Quechua is one of 46 Quechuan languages. Spoken by around 900,000 speakers (decreasing), 300,000 monolinguals in the southwest Ayacucho region and Lima.
Quechua (Imbabura) qvi Imbabura Quechua is one of 46 Quechuan languages. It is spoken in Ecuador. The other Quechuan languages are spoken in Peru, Colombia, Chile, Bolivia and Argentina.
Remo bfw Remo, also known as Bonda, is a Munda language spoken in India by approximately 9000 people.
Reyesano rey Reyesano (or Maropa) is a moribund Tacanan language spoken by about a dozen elderly speakers in the Beni region of northern Bolivia. red
Rio Grande Tewa tew2 Rio Grande Tewa is spoken in New Mexico, North of Santa Fe and in Arizona at Hano on Hopi Reservation. In 2000, there were 1,300 speakers left.
Sahu saj Sahu is a West Papuan language spoken in Indonesia. The data shown here are from the Pa'disua dialect. orange
Sakao sku
Santa Ana Keresan kee Santa Ana Keresan is a Keresan language spoken in north central New Mexico, by people of all ages. An alternative name is Eastern Keres Pueblo.
Santali sat Santali is a North Munda language spoken mainly in India (Bihar, West-Bengal and Orissa), but also in Nepal and Bangladesh. The estimated number of speakers is 6,170,900 in total.
Selkup sel This is the Selkup language, the only Southern Samoyedic language not yet extinct (unlike Mator and Kamas), spoken by approx. 1,500 people in the area between the rivers Ob and Yenisei. Verbs in Selkup distinguish pefective vs. imperfective aspect, 8 moods and the tenses present, future, past, and past narrative in the indicative and inferential moood. There are two conjugation classes: subective and objective conjugation. In both classes verbal suffixes indicate person and number of the subject; in the objective conjugation the presence/absence of a direct object seems to be indicated as well, but in contrast to e.g. the Northern Samoyedic languages no concrete phi-features of this object are indicated - the markers are invariant with respect to the phi-features of the direct object. Intransitive verbs are always in the subjuctive conjugation; transitive verbs may fall in either class, depending e.g. on the locus of the sentence focus and ellipsis of the object.
Shawnee sjw The Shawnee language is a Central Algonquian language spoken in parts of central and northeastern Oklahoma by only around 200 Shawnee, making it very endangered. It was originally spoken in Ohio, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Pennsylvania. It is closely related to the other Algonquian languages Mesquakie-Sauk (Sac and Fox) and Kickapoo. orange
Sisiqa baa
Siuslawan sis Siuslawan (also Siuslaw) is an extinct language in North America belonging to the Penutian family. orange
Slave den Slave is a Na-Dene language spoken in Canada. Other names for this language are Dene or Slavi.
Southeast Ambrym tvk
Squamish squ Squamish is a Salishan language spoken in Canada by 15 people (2002). Data is taken from Kuipers (1965).
Sunwar suz Sunwar is a Northwestern Kiranti language spoken by about 25,000 people in eastern Nepal, in the districts of Ramechap and Okhaldhunga. In the available literature, it is known as ‘Sunwar’ (‘Sunuvar’ in Nepali) although it is known to its speakers as ‘Koic’ (‘Koints’ in English). Contact between the Sunwar and Nepali languages resulted in language change, most visible in the verbal system, where the older biactantial agreement system typical for Kiranti languages disappeared. Therefore Sunwar is a language with only subject marking agreement markers. Sunwar has a close relationship to Bahing, Hayu, Wambule and Jero. green
Sye erg
Temiar tea
Thangmi thf Thangmi is a Tibeto-Burman language spoken in the central-eastern Nepal and north-eastern India.
Thulung tdh Thulung (or Thulung Rai) is a Midwestern Kiranti language spoken by about a thousand people in the eastern hills of Nepal. green
Tiriyo tri Tiriyó (Trió) is spoken in Suriname and Brazil by about 1,400 people. It belongs to the Cariban family.
Tlachichilco Tepehuan tpt Tlachichilco Tepehuan is spoken by 3000 speakers in Western Central Mexico. Data are from Watters (1988).
Tsimshian tsi Tsimshian is a Penutian language spoken in Canada as well as in the United States. There were 750 speakers left in Canada in 2002. Alternative names are Chimmezyan, Tsimpshean and Zimshian.
Tundra Enets enh Tundra Enets and Forest Enets, which may be considered separate languages, are the two main dialects of the nearly extinct Enets language. It is spoken along the Yenisei River in Russia. With about 70 speakers left, the number of the Enets people is ever decreasing.
Tunica tun Tunica was spoken in Central Louisiana, but is now extinct.
Turkana tuv Turkana is an Eastern Nilotic Language spoken by around 350,000 speakers in Kenya.
Vinmavis vnm
Waimiri Atroari atr Waimiri Atroari is spoken in Brazil by about 900 people. It belongs to the Cariban family.
Wambule wme Wambule (Ombule) is a Western Kiranti language spoken by about 5.000 people in the hills of eastern Nepal, the overwhelming majority of them in the south-eastern parts of Okhaldunga district. Some other names by which this language is known from the literature are ‘Chouras’ya’, ‘Chourase’ and ‘Umbule’. The language most closely related to Wambule is the western neighbour Jero. green
Wardaman wrr Wardaman is an Australian language, alternative names are for instance Warda’man, Warduman and Wordaman. Wardaman is similar to Yangman (jng) and Dagoman (dgn), which have no remaining speakers.
Wayana way Wayana is spoken in Suriname, French Guyana and Brazil by about 400 people. It belongs to the Cariban family.
Western Keres kjq Western Keres is spoken in north central New Mexico by approx. 3,000 people.
Wichita wic Wichita is spoken in west central Oklahoma, United States. Dialects are Waco and Tawakoni, the language is nearly extinct.
Winnebago win Winnebago
Wiyot wiy Wiyot (also Wishosk) is an extinct Algic language, formerly spoken by the Wiyot people of Humboldt Bay, California. red
Yakkha ybh Yakkha is a Kiranti language of the Easter branch with approximately 14.648 native speakers (2001). green
Yamphu ybi Yamphu is an Eastern Kiranti language spoken in the eastern hills of Nepal. green
Yana ynn Yana is an extinct North California language documented by Edward Sapir and identified as part of the hypothetical "Hokan" family. red
Yavapai yuf2 Yavapai is spoken in southwestern United States of America. Alternative names are Upland Yuman and Upper Colorado River Yuman.
Yimas yee The Yimas Language is spoken by the Yimas people of Papua New Guinea.
Yuchi yuc Yuchi is spoken in east central Oklahoma and nearly extinct. Other names are Euchee and Uchean.
Yugh yuu Yugh is an extinct language of Russia. orange
Yurok yur Yurok (also: Weitspekan) is an almost extinct Ritwan language spoken in northern California at the mouth of the Klamath River. The name is Karuk and means "The people from downriver" orange
Zoque zoh Zoque (Chimalapa) is one of eleven Mixe-Zoque Family languages. There are 15 monolinguals left. It's spoken in Oaxaca, Santa María Chimalapa and San Miguel Chimalapa, Mexico.
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